Greenhouse Gases

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth’s surface would be about −18 °C (0 °F), rather than the present average of 15 °C (59 °F). In the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain gases that cause a greenhouse effect.

Human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (around 1750) have produced a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), from 280 ppm in 1750 to 406 ppm in early 2017. This increase has occurred despite the uptake of more than half of the emissions by various natural “sinks” involved in the carbon cycle. The vast majority of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions (i.e., emissions produced by human activities) come from combustion of fossil fuels, principally coal, oil, and natural gas, with comparatively modest additional contributions coming from deforestation, changes in land use, soil erosion, and agriculture.

It has been estimated that if greenhouse gas emissions continue at their present rate, Earth’s surface temperature could exceed historical values as early as 2047, with potentially harmful effects on ecosystems, biodiversity and the livelihoods of people worldwide. Recent estimates also suggest that at current emission rates the Earth could pass a threshold of 2 °C global warming, which the United Nations’ IPCC designated as the upper limit to avoid “dangerous” global warming, by 2036.

Much like the glass of a greenhouse, gases in our atmosphere sustain life on Earth by trapping the sun’s heat. These gases allow the sun’s rays to pass through and warm the earth, but prevent this warmth from escaping our atmosphere into space. Without naturally-occurring, heat-trapping gases—mainly water vapour, carbon dioxide and methane—Earth would be too cold to sustain life as we know it.

The danger lies in the rapid increase of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that intensify this natural greenhouse effect. For thousands of years, the global carbon supply was essentially stable as natural processes removed as much carbon as they released. Modern human activity—burning fossil fuels, deforestation, intensive agriculture—has added huge quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
Today’s atmosphere contains 42 per cent more carbon dioxide than it did at the start of the industrial era. Levels of methane and carbon dioxide are the highest they have been in nearly half a million years.

The Kyoto Protocol covers six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. Of these six gases, three are of primary concern because they are closely associated to human activities.

Carbon dioxide is the main contributor to climate change, especially through the burning of fossil fuels.

Methane is produced naturally when vegetation is burned, digested or rotted without the presence of oxygen. Large amounts of methane are released by cattle farming, waste dumps, rice farming and the production of oil and gas.

Nitrous oxide, released by chemical fertilizers and burning fossil fuels, has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide.

Behind the struggle to address global warming and climate change lies the increase in greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. A greenhouse gas is any gaseous compound in the atmosphere that is capable of absorbing infrared radiation, thereby trapping and holding heat in the atmosphere. By increasing the heat in the atmosphere, greenhouse gases are responsible for the greenhouse effect, which ultimately leads to global warming.

Behind the struggle to address global warming and climate change lies the increase in greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. A greenhouse gas is any gaseous compound in the atmosphere that is capable of absorbing infrared radiation, thereby trapping and holding heat in the atmosphere. By increasing the heat in the atmosphere, greenhouse gases are responsible for the greenhouse effect, which ultimately leads to global warming.

Solar radiation and the greenhouse effect

Global warming isn’t a new study in science. The basics of the phenomenon were worked out by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. His paper, published in the Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, was the first to quantify the contribution of carbon dioxide to the greenhouse effect.

The sun bombards Earth with enormous amounts of radiation, which strike Earth’s atmosphere in the form of visible light, plus ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR) and other types of radiation that are invisible to the human eye.

About 30 percent of the radiation striking the Earth is reflected back out to space by clouds, ice and other reflective surfaces. The remaining 70 percent is absorbed by the oceans, the land and the atmosphere, according to NASA.

As they absorb radiation and heat up, the oceans, land and atmosphere release heat in the form of IR thermal radiation, which passes out of the atmosphere into space. The balance between incoming and outgoing radiation keeps Earth’s overall average temperature at about 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius), according to NASA.

This exchange of incoming and outgoing radiation that warms Earth is often referred to as the “greenhouse effect” because a greenhouse works in much the same way. Incoming UV radiation easily passes through the glass walls of a greenhouse and is absorbed by the plants and hard surfaces inside. Weaker IR radiation, however, has difficulty passing out through the glass walls and is trapped inside, warming the greenhouse.

How greenhouse gases affect global warming

The gases in the atmosphere that absorb radiation are known as “greenhouse gases” (sometimes abbreviated as GHG) because they are largely responsible for the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect, in turn, is one of the leading causes of global warming. The most significant greenhouse gases are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). “While oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in our atmosphere, O2 does not absorb thermal infrared radiation,” Michael Daley, an associate professor of environmental science at Lasell College, told Live Science.

While some say that global warming is a natural process and that there have always been greenhouse gasses, the amount of gasses in the atmosphere has skyrocketed in recent history. The Industrial Revolution had a big part to play in the amount of atmospheric CO2 being released. Before, CO2 fluctuated between about 180 ppm during ice ages and 280 ppm during interglacial warm periods. Since the Industrial Revolution, though, the amount of CO2 has dramatically increased to 100 times faster than the increase when the last ice age ended, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Fluorinated gases — that is, gases to which the element fluorine was added — including hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride, are created during industrial processes and are also considered greenhouse gases. Though they are present in very small concentrations, they trap heat very effectively, making them high “global-warming potential” (GWP) gases.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), once used as refrigerants and aerosol propellants until they were phased out by international agreement, are also greenhouse gases.

Three factors affect the degree to which any greenhouse gas will influence global warming:

1. Its abundance in the atmosphere
2. How long it stays in the atmosphere
3. Its global-warming potential

Carbon dioxide has a significant impact on global warming partly because of its abundance in the atmosphere. According to the EPA, in 2012, U.S. greenhouse gas emissions totaled 6,526 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents, which equaled 82 percent of all human caused greenhouse gasses. Additionally, CO2 stays in the atmosphere for thousands of years.

However, methane is about 21 times more efficient at absorbing radiation than CO2, giving it a high GWP rating, even though it stays in the atmosphere only about 10 years, according to the EPA.

Sources of greenhouse gases

Some greenhouse gases, like methane, are produced through agricultural practices including livestock manure management. Others, like CO2, largely result from natural processes like respiration and from the burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas. The production of electricity is the source of 70 percent of the United States’ sulfur dioxide emissions, 13 percent of nitrogen oxide emissions, and 40 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, according to the EPA.

The second cause of CO2 release is deforestation, according to research published by Duke University. When trees are killed to produce goods or heat, they release the carbon that is normally stored for photosynthesis. This process releases nearly a billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere per year, according to the 2010 Global Forest Resources Assessment.

It’s worth noting that forestry and other land-use practices offset some of these greenhouse gas emissions, according to the EPA. “Replanting helps to reduce the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as growing trees sequester carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted and stored in the vegetation and soils of the forest. However, forests cannot sequester all of the carbon dioxide we are emitting to the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels and a reduction in fossil fuel emissions is still necessary to avoid build up in the atmosphere,” said Daley.

Worldwide, the output of greenhouse gases is a source of grave concern: From the time the Industrial Revolution began to the year 2009, atmospheric CO2 levels have increased almost 38 percent and methane levels have increased a whopping 148 percent, according to NASA, and most of that increase has been in the past 50 years. Because of global warming, 2014 was the warmest year on record and 10 of the hottest years have all come after 1998.

“The warming we observe affects atmospheric circulation, which impacts rainfall patterns globally. This will lead to big environmental changes, and challenges, for people all across the globe,” Josef Werne, an associate professor in the department of geology and planetary science at the University of Pittsburgh, told Live Science.

If these trends continue, scientists, government officials and a growing number of citizens fear that the worst effects of global warming — extreme weather, rising sea levels, plant and animal extinctions, ocean acidification, major shifts in climate and unprecedented social upheaval — will be inevitable. In answer to the problems caused by global warming by greenhouse gasses, the government created a climate action plan in 2013.

How do Greenhouse Gases actually work?